What happens when the popliteal artery is damaged?
Long-term pressure on the popliteal artery can cause the artery to narrow (stenosis), causing pain and cramping with just slight activity, such as walking. In severe cases or when undiagnosed, the nerves and muscles in the leg can become damaged. Blood clots may occur in the lower leg (deep vein thrombosis).
How do you treat a popliteal artery injury?
Preoperative arteriography and immediate repair of the popliteal artery by either end-to-end anastomosis or a vein graft is advocated for these patients. Popliteal vein injuries should be repaired when possible by lateral suture or end-to-end anastomosis. Fasciotomy is advocated on a selected basis.
How is popliteal artery injury diagnosed?
Four of the patients had complete popliteal artery transection and one had intramural hematoma and spasm. Initial diagnosis of severe arterial injury, although suspicious on clinical grounds, was not conclusive. Use of a Doppler flowmeter and arteriography was essential for the diagnosis of arterial injury.
What are the hard signs of arterial injury?
‘Hard’ signs are made up of distal circulatory deficit (ischaemia, diminished or absent pulse), bruit, expanding or pulsatile haematoma, and arterial bleeding.
What does a popliteal DVT feel like?
The symptoms of a popliteal vein thrombosis include pain, swelling, and tenderness around the area of the clot. While the vein is closer to the surface of the skin in the back of the knee, a clot can form anywhere in the blood vessel. The skin over the affected area may also feel warm to the touch.
What does the popliteal artery do?
The popliteal artery provides numerous branches of blood supply to the structures of the knee and the lower extremity. Originating from above the knee joint are the superior medial and superior lateral genicular arteries with connections to the deep femoral artery providing collateral blood flow proximal to the knee.
How deep is the popliteal artery?
The deepest (most anterior) structure in the fossa, the popliteal artery runs close to the joint capsule of the knee as it spans the intercondylar fossa. Five genicular branches of the popliteal artery supply the capsule and ligaments of the knee joint….
Which of the following knee injuries is most likely to be associated with vascular trauma?
The highest rate of vascular injury occurs with knee dislocations because of the extreme force required to dislocate the joint.
What is soft signs of vascular injury?
Soft signs of vascular injury include the following: Significant hemorrhage found on history….History and Physical Examination
- Observed pulsatile bleeding.
- Arterial thrill (ie, vibration) by manual palpation.
- Bruit over or near the artery by auscultation.
- Signs of distal ischemia.
- Visible expanding hematoma.
Is vascular trauma serious?
Often the result of an accident or injury, a vascular trauma can be mild, moderate, or severe.
How common are popliteal artery injuries following penetrating and blunt trauma?
The clinical presentation and management of 28 popliteal artery injuries following penetrating and blunt trauma during a 6 year period is reviewed. Clinical and Doppler evaluation identified an arterial injury in 24 (85 per cent) patients.
What is the prognosis of popliteal vascular trauma?
Popliteal vascular trauma remains a challenging entity, and carries the greatest risk of limb loss among the lower extremity vascular injuries. Operative management of traumatic popliteal vascular injuries continues to evolve.
What did the angiography reveal about the occluded popliteal artery?
The previously performed angiography revealed that the popliteal artery was totally occluded and there was no pathway to distal flow (Figure 2). The patient was transfused 2 units of blood for hematocrit <27%, and as his general condition deteriorated an above-knee amputation was undertaken. Open in a separate window Figure 1
What is the leading cause of amputation in popliteal fractures?
Popliteal artery injury is mainly associated with high energy injury, including knee dislocation and complex tibial plateau fractures or supracondylar femur fractures.5Delay in its diagnosis is the leading cause of amputation in this limb-threatening injury. Failure to revascularize within 6–8 hours results in an unacceptably high amputation rate.3