What is ANFO blasting?

In coal mining: Drilling and blasting. … nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) in dry mix, slurry, or emulsion form. It is common to have a bulk-explosive truck drive into the area where holes have been drilled to fill holes with custom-designed explosive mixtures.

How is ANFO used in mining?

Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil is a mixture of ammonium nitrate (AN) and fuel oil (FO). ANFO is commonly used in the mining industry as an explosive because of its low cost and is estimated to comprise 80% of all explosives used annually in North America.

Is ANFO a blasting agent?

This mixture is generally known as “AN-FO Blasting Agent” or simply “ANFO”. It is capable of producing a high velocity explosion and when initiated by a suitable primer it will do the same amount of work as a nitroglycerine explosive of the conventional type.

What are the process of blasting of rock?

blasting, process of reducing a solid body, such as rock, to fragments by using an explosive. Conventional blasting operations include (1) drilling holes, (2) placing a charge and detonator in each hole, (3) detonating the charge, and (4) clearing away the broken material.

Can I buy ANFO?

People who want to buy it must produce a federal permit or a license issued by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. They must also have a permit from the Department of Transportation to move the ANFO, and various state or local permits to use it.

What happens when you mix diesel and ammonium nitrate?

The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed. The gas released from the decomposing fertilizer is what drives the explosion. The rapid release of oxygen, along with the energy from the detonation wave, ignites the fuel.

Can ammonium nitrate explode without fuel oil?

Without a detonator, pure ammonium nitrate does not explode, which is why it is considered safe to use as an agricultural fertilizer. However, when mixed with carbons such as fuel oil, it can be used for commercial explosions, for mining and other purposes.

What chemical is used to blast rocks?

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil
What explosive is used for rock blasting? Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) is used as an explosive in mining, quarrying, and tunneling construction. Ammonium nitrate can be transported and stored and mixed with fuel oil when needed. ANFO is made of about 94% ammonium nitrate and 6% fuel oil.

What is the required before blasting?

A successful blast has to meet two basic conditions: (1) the explosive in each blasthole is completely detonated, and (2) detonator position, charge length, initiation plan, quantity of detonators in each borehole, delay time, and so on are correct, regardless of the types of detonators.

How expensive is ANFO?

Cost effective new formulation of ANFO by using Biomass Briquette as Additive

ANFO / Biomass Briq Cost Calculation:
Total 1000 35570
Qty Cost (Rs)
ANFO/Briq. 1000
AN 910 29120

Is ANFO water resistant?

ANFO is not waterproof or even resistant. ANFO can deflagrate if a significant amount of water has damaged the ANFO. ANFO can fail to detonate if water has damaged enough ANFO in the hole. If the ANFO shoots “low order”, it shoots inefficiently and produces excess gases.

What is the ratio for ANFO?

Explosives and Detonators ANFO and emulsion explosives are now the most widely used explosives all over the world. ANFO is composed of approximately 94% AN and 6% fuel oil by weight.