What does THP-1 cells stand for?

THP-1 designates a spontaneously immortalized monocyte-like cell line, derived from the peripheral blood of a childhood case of acute monocytic leukemia (M5 subtype) (3).

What is PMA to THP-1 cells?

THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophage-like cells (THP-1 macrophages) by incubation in the presence of PMA, which leads to a macrophage-like phenotype characterized by changes in morphology and increased cell surface expression of CD11 and CD14 [10,11,14,17,21].

Do THP-1 cells adhere?

THP-1 cells are non-adherent, so all treatments you perform to promote their attachment are going to have an impact on them. For instance, PMA tends to upregulate the expression of some genes in differentiated macrophages, which could affect the gene expression induced by other stimuli.

Are THP-1 cells primary?

Origin and Some Features of THP-1 and U937 Cells (1980). It was derived from the blood of a patient with acute monocytic leukaemia. THP-1 cells resemble primary monocytes and macrophages in morphology and differentiation properties.

What are some advantages of the THP-1 cell line?

THP-1 cells have some technical advantages over human primary monocytes or macrophages. For instance, their genetic background is homogeneous which minimizes the degree of variability in the cell phenotype.

How do you maintain THP-1 cells?

The THP-1 (ATCC TIB-202) cell culture is usually expanded by the addition of complete culture medium. Full fluid changes should be performed by centrifuging and resuspending the cells in fresh media at least every 7 days.

What is PMA in cell culture?

The phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKCs, is known to stimulate the in vitro growth of monolayer cultures of normal human melanocytes whereas it inhibits the growth of most malignant melanoma cell lines.

What does PMA do to macrophages?

PMA at moderate concentrations induced apoptosis in macrophages, and this process appeared to be increased in the presence of myelin. In contrast, microglia were activated by PMA, and greatly increased their phagocytosis of myelin.

Why do THP-1 cells clump?

Popular Answers (1) THP-1 cells grow in clumps as when they divide the new cell attaches to the one it split from. With my THP-1 gentle pipetting up and down will break the clumps but the cells remain viable.

Are THP-1 macrophages adherent?

Normally THP-1 cells grow in suspension, but they can be induced to differentiate into adherent macrophage-like cells, which express IL-8 and other markers, and can thus serve as a model system for differentiation.

Why is mercaptoethanol used in cell culture?

Gibcoâ„¢ 2-Mercaptoethanol (also known as beta-mercaptoethanol or BME) is a potent reducing agent used in cell culture media to prevent toxic levels of oxygen radicals. 2-Mercaptoethanol is not stable in solution, so most protocols require daily supplementation.

What is PMA stimulation?

PMA activates protein kinase C, while ionomycin is a calcium ionophore, and stimulation with these compounds bypasses the T cell membrane receptor complex and will lead to activation of several intracellular signaling pathways, resulting in T cell activation and production of a variety of cytokines.