What are supercoiled plasmids?

Supercoiled Plasmid Supercoiled DNA is the native DNA conformation found in vivo and occurs when extra twists are introduced into the double helix strand. People often compare the forms of DNA to rubber bands or telephone cords (I know some of you must still remember phones with cords!).

Is Escherichia coli transformable?

Escherichia coli is not considered to be naturally transformable (Solomon & Grossman, 1996), although various artificial transformation methods (in which Ca2+, incubation at low temperature and a temperature shift or an electronic shock is necessary) have been developed and are widely used in molecular biology (Mandel …

What is the transformation efficiency of E. coli?

The transformation efficiency of E. coli cells (DH5α, JM109 and TOP10) prepared by CRM were comparable with electroporation for plasmid transformation (3.1 ± 0.3 × 109 cfu/µg).

What is the concentration of plasmid for transformation?

u can use a concentration of 50 ng to 100 ng. Normally, I use 10-50 ng of my plasmid for transformation to E. Coli. The maximum volume that can be used in the transformation is ~10% of your total volume.

What causes DNA to Supercoil?

If DNA is in the form of a circular molecule, or if the ends are rigidly held so that it forms a loop, then overtwisting or undertwisting leads to the supercoiled state. Supercoiling occurs when the molecule relieves the helical stress by twisting around itself.

Why E. coli is not transformable?

coli can be transformed in the laboratory, but this requires artificial entry of DNA into cells. However E. coli should be naturally transformable because it has a set of inducible competence gene homologues in a functional regulon [29].

How will you transform a plasmid into E. coli?

Transformation of plasmid DNA into E. coli using the heat shock method is a basic technique of molecular biology. It consists of inserting a foreign plasmid or ligation product into bacteria.

Why is E. coli used in transformation?

E. coli is a preferred host for gene cloning due to the high efficiency of introduction of DNA molecules into cells. E. coli is a preferred host for protein production due to its rapid growth and the ability to express proteins at very high levels.

How can you increase the transformation efficiency of E. coli?

Escherichia coli DH5α cells treated with silver nanoparticles alone resulted in significant increase in transformation efficiency compared to the calcium chloride while using plasmid vectors of different sizes, viz. pUC18, pBR322 and pCAMBIA.

Why do we use 42 degree Celsius heat shock in a transformation?

One model is that the heat shock (0 → 42°C) causes changes in membrane fluidity, resulting in the formation of zones of adhesion, where the outer and inner cell membranes fuse with pores in the cell wall, and through which DNA may pass (9-12).

Why is E. coli used for transformation?