## How is pro forma EFN calculated?

For the liabilities section, add existing liabilities and any required borrowing. For the shareholders’ equity, add the projected retained earnings to the existing equity section. Subtract the sum of the liabilities and equity section from total assets to find the EFN.

How do you calculate external financing required for EFN?

Calculate External Financing Needed Subtract the company’s projected working capital needs and capital expenditures from net income to determine the amount of external financing needed. In this example, the company will need to raise \$44 – \$18 – \$32 = (\$6), which means \$6 in external financing is needed.

What does EFN mean in finance?

External Financing Needed
The amount of external financing (EFN), or money borrowed from a bank or investors, needed can be approximated with this formula: External Financing Needed (EFN) = Increase in Assets – Increase in Liabilities – Retained Income.

### How is NWC calculated?

Net working capital (NWC) is calculated by taking a company’s current assets and deducting current liabilities. For instance, if a company has current assets of \$100,000 and current liabilities of \$80,000, then its NWC would be \$20,000. Common examples of current assets include cash, accounts receivable, and inventory.

What does it mean if EFN is negative?

A negative external financing value indicates the firm will generate more cash than it needs to finance the projected growth period the extra cash can be used to reduce debt, purchase shares, increase cash reserves, or fund future growth . This extra cash was primarily due to the firms excess production capacity.

How do you calculate discretionary financing?

The following is the correct formula for predicting discretionary financing needs: Projected (total assets + liabilities + owner’s equity). Projected (total assets – liabilities + owner’s equity).

#### Does NWC include cash?

Different approaches to calculating NWC may exclude cash and debt (current portion only), or only include accounts receivable, inventory, and accounts payable.

Is cash included in working capital?

Unlike inventory, accounts receivable and other current assets, cash then earns a fair return and should not be included in measures of working capital.

What does a positive EFN mean?

A positive EFN will typically be the case if the firm is operating at capacity since internally generated funds (i.e., the addition to retained earnings from the pro forma income statement) will usually be less than what is required in total.

## What does a zero EFN mean?

The EFN would be zero if the expected sources of funds equaled the need for funds.

What are pro forma financial statements used to calculate efn?

The pro forma financial statements used to calculate EFN include the information usually found on the current statements. They do not include allowances for one-time or unusual expenses or income that is not part of the firm’s normal operations. External financing may mean additional debt, equity provided by investors or both.

How do you calculate EFN in finance?

Subtract the cost of goods sold, operating expenses, interest paid and other expenses to project the net future earnings. Subtract dividends that will be paid to estimate retained earnings. Subtract the sum of the liabilities and equity section from total assets to find the EFN. Click to see full answer. Furthermore, what is EFN in finance?

### How do you calculate pro forma net income?

Pro Forma is the sum of all earning divided by the sum of all share outstanding to get Pro Forma EPS. Pro Forma EPS = (Acquirer’s Net Income + Target’s Net Income)/(Acquirer’s shares outstanding + New Shares Issued) = (6,000+3,000)/(3,000+700)

How do you calculate pro forma EPS?

Pro Forma is the sum of all earning divided by the sum of all shares outstanding to get Pro Forma EPS. Pro Forma EPS = (Acquirer’s Net Income + Target’s Net Income)/ (Acquirer’s shares outstanding + New Shares Issued)