Where does J1 come from?
The oldest identified J1 sample to date comes from Satsurblia cave (c. 13200 BCE) in Georgia (Jones et al. (2015)), placing the origins of haplogroup J1 in all likelihood in the region around the Caucasus, Zagros, Taurus and eastern Anatolia during the Upper Paleolithic.
What is J chromosome?
Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is believed to have evolved in Western Asia. The clade spread from there during the Neolithic, primarily into North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Socotra, the Caucasus, Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.
What is R1a1 gene?
Further, M17-R1a (presently designated as R1a1) was suggested as a potential marker with decreasing frequencies from Central Asia towards South India. 23. On similar lines, it was suggested that a package of Y-HGs (J2, R1a, R2 and L) was associated with the migration of Indo-European people from Central Asia.
How many haplotypes do humans have?
The four possible haplotypes for these two SNPs are AC, AT, GC, and GT. However, only AC and GT are common; these SNPs are said to be highly associated with each other.
Why do different haplotypes exist?
They get inherited together because they’re not generally crossovers or recombinations between these markers or between these different polymorphisms because they are very, very close. So a haplotype can refer to a combination of alleles in a single gene, or it could be alleles across multiple genes.
Where are Brahmins originally from?
The elevated position of the Brahmans goes back to the late Vedic period, when the Indo-European-speaking settlers in northern India were already divided into Brahmans (or priests), warriors (of the Kshatriya class), traders (of the Vaishya class), and labourers (of the Shudra class).
What is Haplogroup J2a1?
Haplogroup J2a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 16,700 and 25,700 years (Behar et al., 2012b). Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity.
Where can haplogroup J be found?
Haplogroup J has also been found among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Pre-Ptolemaic/late New Kingdom, Ptolemaic, and Roman periods.
Where are the J1 and J2 subclade found?
Of the two main sub-groups, J1 takes up four-fifths of the total and is spread widely on the continent while J2 is more localised around the Mediterranean, Greece, Italy/Sardinia and Spain. There is also limited evidence that the subclade J1 has long been present in Central Asia.
Where is Haplogroup J2 found in Pakistan?
However, J2 is found amongst 9% of the Kalash minority of north-west Pakistan. In the Arabian peninsula, mtDNA haplogroup J is found among Saudis (10.5–18.8% J1b) and Yemenis (0–20% J1b). The J1b subclade also occurs in the Near East among Iraqis (7.1%) and Palestinians (4%).