What is the pathophysiology of Burkitt lymphoma?

Burkitt lymphoma (BL), a tumor occurring in endemic, sporadic and AIDS-associated forms, is the classic example of a human malignancy whose pathogenesis involves a specific cellular genetic change, namely, a chromosomal translocation deregulating expression of the c-myc oncogene, complemented in many cases by the …

What is differential diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma?

Other entities in the differential diagnosis of Burkitt’s lymphoma include lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia and blastoid mantle cell lymphoma.

What is starry sky appearance in Burkitt lymphoma?

Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by a starry-sky appearance. This is due to the presence of macrophages with relatively clear cytoplasm as seen in the inset. This is a tumor of mature B cells. The immunophenotype is similar to that of normal B cells in the dark zone of a germinal center.

What is the mutation in Burkitt lymphoma?

ID3 mutations occurred in 34% of Burkitt lymphomas and not in DLBCLs. We show experimentally that ID3 mutations promote cell cycle progression and proliferation. Our work thus elucidates commonly occurring gene-coding mutations in Burkitt lymphoma and implicates ID3 as a new tumor suppressor gene.

What are the principal microscopic features of Burkitt lymphoma?

Under the microscope, the hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the presence of a “starry sky” appearance (also observed in other highly proliferative lymphomas), imparted by scattered macrophages phagocytizing cell debris and apoptotic cells (tingible body macrophages) (see the image below).

How Epstein-Barr virus causes Burkitt lymphoma?

One observation that favored the carcinogenic role of EBV in Burkitt’s lymphoma was the finding that EBV was an extremely potent transforming virus in culture for the same cell type that develops into Burkitt’s lymphoma, the B lymphocyte [14], being able to convert >50% of B cell into continuously proliferating.

What does a Reed Sternberg cell look like?

Reed–Sternberg cells are large (30–50 microns) and are either multinucleated or have a bilobed nucleus with prominent eosinophilic inclusion-like nucleoli (thus resembling an “owl’s eye” appearance). Reed–Sternberg cells are CD30 and CD15 positive, usually negative for CD20 and CD45.

Why is Burkitt lymphoma common in children?

Like other types of NHL, the exact cause of Burkitt lymphoma isn’t known. Some viral infections may increase a child’s risk of having Burkitt lymphoma. The viruses that are linked to Burkitt lymphoma include: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the virus that causes mono (mononucleosis)

What is the meaning of starry sky?

adjective [ADJECTIVE noun] A starry night or sky is one in which a lot of stars are visible.

What does the MYC gene do?

The c-Myc gene serves as a “master regulator” of cellular metabolism and proliferation. Since it is activated by a large number of oncogenic pathways and, in turn, stimulates many of the metabolic changes that result in malignant transformation, it is truly “both the chicken and the egg”.

Which two chromosomes are involved in the translocation that caused Burkitt lymphoma?

Abstract. Burkitt lymphoma (BL) has a characteristic clinical presentation, morphology, immunophenotype and primary chromosomal aberration, that is, the translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) or its variants.

What is the current status of research on Burkitt’s lymphoma?

Researchers conducted a large, multicenter clinical trial that enrolled 113 patients identified as having low- or high-risk Burkitt lymphoma. At a median follow-up of almost 5 years 87% treated with DA-EPOCH-R survived and 85% were alive without cancer recurrence at 4 years from initiation of treatment.