What is the electron donor in sulfate reduction?
Hydrogen. Hydrogen is an attractive electron donor for sulfate reduction because its free energy of sulfate reduction is more favorable than that of methanogenesis.
Is sulfate an electron donor?
Instead, molecules such as sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3–), or sulfur (S) are used as electron acceptors. These molecules have a lower reduction potential than oxygen; thus, less energy is formed per molecule of glucose in anaerobic versus aerobic conditions.
Do sulfate-reducing bacteria need light?
This reaction requires anaerobic conditions, ample hydrogen sulfide, and sufficient sunlight near the surface.
What happens when sulfate is reduced?
Sulfate-reducing bacteria oxidize this hydrogen, creating hydrogen sulfide, which contributes to corrosion. Hydrogen sulfide from sulfate-reducing bacteria also plays a role in the biogenic sulfide corrosion of concrete, and sours crude oil.
Which of the following is the terminal electron acceptor in sulfate-reducing bacteria?
Therefore, these sulfidogenic microorganisms “breathe” sulfate rather than molecular oxygen (O2), which is the terminal electron acceptor reduced to water (H2O) in aerobic respiration.
What does sulfur reduce?
Sulfur-reducing bacteria are microorganisms able to reduce elemental sulfur (S0) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). These microbes use inorganic sulfur compounds as electron acceptors to sustain several activities such as respiration, conserving energy and growth, in absence of oxygen.
How do you identify an electron donor and acceptor?
Since electron transport chains are redox processes, they can be described as the sum of two redox pairs. For example, the mitochondrial electron transport chain can be described as the sum of the NAD+/NADH redox pair and the O2/H2O redox pair. NADH is the electron donor and O2 is the electron acceptor.
How does reducing sulfate reduce bacteria?
Biocide compounds are often added to water to inhibit the microbial activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, in order to but not limited to, avoid anaerobic methane oxidation and the generation of hydrogen sulfide, ultimately resulting in minimizing potential production loss.
How do sulfate-reducing bacteria work?
What is the equation for sulfate reduction?
6.34. 1 Introduction
|Eqn||Reaction equations in which 8 e-moles are converted||ΔG°′ (kJ mol−1)|
|1||CH 3 COO − + SO 4 2- → 2 HCO 3 − + HS −||−48|
|2||4 3 CH 3 OH+SO 4 2 − → 4 3 HCO 3 − + HS − + 4 3 H 2 O+ 1 3 H +||−121|
|3||4 H 2 + SO 4 2 − + H + → HS − + 4 H 2 O||−152|
Where does sulfate reduction occur?
Sulfate is also found in more extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents, acid mine drainage sites, oil fields, and the deep subsurface, including the world’s oldest isolated ground water. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms are common in anaerobic environments where they aid in the degradation of organic materials.
What happens when sulphur is oxidized?
Sulfur oxidation involves the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide (H2S), inorganic sulfur (S0), and thiosulfate (S2O2−3) to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4).