What is the Behavioural approach to explaining phobias?
Behavioural approaches suggest that abnormal behaviour is learned somehow. Two-process model: Developed by Mowrer (1960), this suggests that phobias are acquired through learning. Phobias are acquired initially by classical conditioning (learning by association).
What is the Behaviourism approach?
The Behaviourist approach to learning studied changes in behaviour that are caused by a person’s direct experience of their environment, using the principles of classical and operant conditioning to explain them.
How would a behaviourist psychologist explain the development of a phobia?
The behaviourist explanation suggest that phobias and other behaviours are learnt through classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning through association with involuntary reflex responses Watson and Rayner conditioned a baby- Little Albert- to fear white rats.
Which method according to behaviorism can be used to cure phobia?
Exposure therapy. During exposure therapy, which is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy, you work with a psychologist to learn how to desensitize yourself to the object or situation that you fear.
How does the social approach explain phobias?
This approach suggests that the development of phobias is influenced by observing fearful responses in others. According to this theory, children develop phobias by observing the fearful, anxious behaviors of parents or caregivers.
What is the 2 process model of phobias?
EVIDENCE: For example, the Two-Process model suggests that when an individual experiences a traumatic event and uses this event to draw an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned response they will go on and develop a phobia.
What are the main assumptions of the behaviourist approach?
One assumption of the behaviourist approach is that we are born as a blank slate (known as tabula rasa) and we learn everything from the environment. This assumptions believes that all humans, male and female, are born the same and it is the environment and social norms that shape our personality.
What is the psychology behind phobias?
Many phobias develop as a result of having a negative experience or panic attack related to a specific object or situation. Genetics and environment. There may be a link between your own specific phobia and the phobia or anxiety of your parents — this could be due to genetics or learned behavior. Brain function.
Who proposed the two-process to explain phobias?
Although each theory can be used on its own, Mowrer (1947) put forward a two-process model, to explain how phobias are learned through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning.
How effective is cognitive behavioral therapy for phobias?
Research shows that CBT with exposure is the best treatment for specific phobias. The results can vary based on your specific phobia, like fear of spiders, flying, or blood. For example, one small study found that exposure therapy reduced anxiety about flying in 84% of research participants.
What is a successful technique used for overcoming phobias?
Exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy are the most effective treatments. Exposure therapy focuses on changing your response to the object or situation that you fear.