What is Phlebotomus and leishmaniasis?
Phlebotomus (old world) and Lutzomyia (new world) sandfly bites transmit leishmaniasis to humans in most of the tropical and subtropical world. Trypanosomatidae of various species cause visceral leishmaniasis (L. donovani, infantum and others), cutaneous and mucocutaneous infections (L.
Is Phlebotomus a mosquito?
Phlebotomus is a genus of “sand flies” in the Diptera family Psychodidae. In the past, they have sometimes been considered to belong in a separate family, Phlebotomidae, but this alternative classification has not gained wide acceptance.
Which disease is caused by Phlebotomus?
Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly parasitic disease that is transmitted via the bite of a female sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes. The highest burden of this disease is in northern India.
Do sand flies bite humans?
Behavior. In general, sand fly bites are very painful. Most flies that bite humans feed during the evening and throughout the night. In some cases, flies will attack in the daytime, if they are disturbed while resting.
What is the medical role of Phlebotomus?
Sand flies are of considerable medical importance: around the Mediterranean and in southern Asia, Phlebotomus transmits the pappataci fever virus; and in parts of South America, Africa, and Asia it carries the protozoan parasites causing kala azar, Oriental sore, espundia, and bartonellosis.
What is the purpose of sand flies?
The sand flies feed on plants and the ingested tissues may contain cellulose particles that the sand flies are unable to digest. Cellulolytic enzymes are secreted by L. major promastigotes and this may help to break down cellulose in infected flies and sustain their growth.
How do you stop sandfly bites?
- Avoid localities, especially at dawn and dusk.
- Avoid watering your garden around sunset as midges are attracted to shady humid areas.
- Wear protective clothing in the early morning, late afternoon and evenings.
- Apply DEET repellent (15-20%) to exposed skin.
How do you treat sandfly bites?
How to treat sandfly bites. Antihistamine tablets or creams can help. Some people also experience relief by applying ice to the bite. Bites should never be scratched as this increases the chance of the wound becoming infected.
What is Phlebotomus SPP lifecycle?
Sand flies have a four-stage life cycle: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Eggs hatch after 4-20 days, although this is likely to be delayed in cooler weather . Larval development involves four instars, and is completed after 20-30 days depending on species, temperature and nutrient availability.
Which organ is affected by Leishmania?
The most common forms are cutaneous leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral leishmaniasis, which affects several internal organs (usually spleen, liver, and bone marrow).