What is pathogenesis of HPV?

The productive life cycle of HPVs is linked to epithelial differentiation. Papillomaviruses are thought to infect cells in the basal layer of stratified epithelia and establish their genomes as multicopy nuclear episomes. In these cells, viral DNA is replicated along with cellular chromosomes.

How does HPV cause cervical cancer pathophysiology?

HPV infects the squamous cells that line the inner surfaces of these organs. For this reason, most HPV-related cancers are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. Some cervical cancers come from HPV infection of gland cells in the cervix and are called adenocarcinomas.

What is cervical Pathology?

The cervical abnormalities, that can be evaluated using virtual hysterosalpingography (VHSG), include diverse types of pathologies such as changes in the cervical diameter, dilatation or stenosis, sinechiae and parietal irregularities with thick folds, polipoyd lesions, diverticules and cesarean scars.

What is the main etiological factor of cervical cancer?

The aetiology of cervical cancer is strongly associated with viral infection (i.e. human papillomavirus (HPV)); other risk factors include low socio-economic class, multiple sexual partners, smoking and poor diet.

What are the virulence factors of HPV?

The virulence of HPV is mainly exhibited by E5, E6 and E7 encoded oncoproteins that cause low to high-grade cervical lesions (CIN-1, 2, 3), leading to form 99.7% of squamous cell and 89% of adenocarcinomas cervical cancer worldwide.

Why does HPV cause cancer?

When high-risk HPV doesn’t go away, it can infect the cells of the cervix, mouth and throat, anus, penis, vulva, or vagina. HPV infections turn normal cells into abnormal cells — called precancerous cells. If you don’t remove these precancerous cells, they can keep growing and become cancer.

What is Type 3 transformation zone?

Type 3 transformation zone (TZ) of the cervix poses a challenge in cervical cancer screening with visual techniques because of the potential for missing important precancerous lesions which can progress into invasive cervical cancer (ICC) prior to detection.

What are squamous cells in cervix?

Squamous cells are the flat, skin-like cells that cover the outer surface of the cervix (the ectocervix). Between 70 and 80 out of every 100 cervical cancers (70 to 80%) are squamous cell cancers.

How does cervical cancer develop?

Long-lasting infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another during sex. At least half of sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives, but few women will get cervical cancer.

What is the epidemiology of cervical cancer?

Epidemiology for cervical cancer Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women (8). Over the past 30 years, the increasing proportion of young women affected by cervical cancer has ranged from 10% to 40% (9).

What is pathogenesis example?

Types of pathogenesis include microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy and tissue breakdown. For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the process by which bacteria cause infectious illness. Most diseases are caused by multiple processes.