What is hepatocyte differentiation?

The most frequently assessed markers of hepatocyte differentiation include expression of plasma proteins such albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, and α−1-antitrypsin (45, 80, 84, 89–91), in that this organ is the dominant site of plasma protein synthesis (92, 93).

What is the difference between ES and iPS cells?

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by somatic cell reprogramming following the exogenous expression of specific transcription factors (Oct-3/4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-Myc).

What are two major differences between ES cells and iPS cells?

All Answers (5) Both are pluripotent cells and can differentiate into different cells but iPS cells are generated in lab after reprogramming somatic cells whereas ES cells derived from inner cell mass (ICM) of embryo before implantation.

Are hepatocytes terminally differentiated?

Terminally differentiated cells normally do not transform into other types of cells, especially in vitro. However, in some organs, terminally differentiated cells can proliferate considerably. For example, during liver damage, hepatocytes proliferate.

What is the shape of liver cells?

The cells are polygonal in shape and their sides can be in contact either with sinusoids (sinusoidal face) or neighboring hepatocytes (lateral faces). A portion of the lateral faces of hepatocytes is modified to form bile canaliculi.

What are primary hepatocytes?

Hepatocytes directly isolated from liver tissue are called primary hepatocytes. The image on the left side is a schematic that shows the procedure for the isolation of primary human hepatocytes, and their cellular morphology in suspension and on plates.

What is the difference between embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells?

ESCs are derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo before the soma and the germ cell lineages separate. iPSCs, however, are derived from somatic cells.

What is the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells?

Adult Stem Cells are undifferentiated stem cells in differentiated organs/tissues. Embryonic Stem Cells are found during the early blastocyst stage. They are multipotent. It means they can develop only into closely related cell types.

What is a terminally differentiated cell?

Terminally differentiated cells are defined by specialized properties, which are the result of tissue-specific gene expression, associated with a physiologically irreversible growth arrest. Terminal differentiation characterizes the majority of the cells in an adult mammal.

What is terminal differentiation of cells?

According to a classic concept, a terminally differentiated (TD) cell is defined as one that, in the course of acquiring specialized functions, has irreversibly lost its ability to proliferate.

Are hepatocytes hexagonal?

Liver lobules are collections of hepatocytes in a hexagonal shape with the center being a central vein. Within the lobules, the hepatocytes are arranged in cords, and in between the cords is a vascular space with a thin fenestrated endothelium and a discontinuous membrane called a sinusoid.

What makes hepatocytes unique?

Hepatocytes are unique in that they may have several basolateral and apical domains in close proximity (Fig.