What is carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae?

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacteria are a group of emerging highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli causing infections associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

What bacteria produces carbapenemase?

Carbapenemase Producing Organisms (CPO) refers to bacteria in the family of Enterobacteriaceae (e.g. E. coli, Klebsiella, etc) and those that do not belong to this family such as Pseudomonas, that are resistant to carbapenem antibiotics by producing an enzyme to break down the carbapenem antibiotics.

What is a carbapenemase what category of antibiotics does it function against?

Carbapenems, among the beta-lactams, are the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria presenting a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.

Does Klebsiella pneumoniae represents a Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae CPE )?

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been defined as carbapenem-nonsusceptible and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Klebsiella oxytoca.

How is KPC production detected?

For the recognition of KPCs, have been established several phenotypic tests (12, 25). The method presently approve by the CLSI is the modified Hodge test (MHT) and this method is accepted as a specific and sensitive method for detection of carbapenemase (26, 27).

When was the first strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase found?

KPC is an enzyme that degrades penicillin, cephalosporin, and broad-spectrum β-lactams such as the carbapenems. This type of β-lactamase was discovered relatively recently, first detected in a strain isolated in the United States in 1996 [2].

How does carbapenemase work?

Carbapenems work by penetrating the cell wall of bacteria, binding with penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), and result in inactivation of intracellular autolytic inhibitor enzymes, ultimately killing the bacterial cell.

What is the difference between CPE and CRE?

So the CRE bugs can be divided into different groups. One group of CRE is called CPE (Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae). This CPE group is the group of CRE that we are most worried about because it is these CPE that are spreading rapidly all over the world.

Which of the following methods is used to detect the presence of carbapenemase producing organisms?

Carbapenemase producing isolate is detected by the MHT when the test isolate produces the enzyme and allows the growth of the carbapenem susceptible E. coli ATCC 25922 strain towards the disk.

What is oxa 48 carbapenemase?

The OXA-48 enzyme is an Ambler class D beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes carbapenems but shows very weak activity against extended-spectrum cephalosporins such as cefepime and ceftazidime (2), although isolates are frequently multidrug resistant as they combine multiple resistance mechanisms (11).

How is Klebsiella pneumoniae diagnosed?

Conventional methods used to detect K. pneumoniae based on the phenotypic system include microscopic examination, biochemical identification, and the use of newly developed automatic bacterial identification instruments, such as the VITEK®2 system (Hay et al., 2007).

What type of resistance does KPC represent?

4.1. KPC producers have evolved to be multidrug resistant to β-lactams thereby limiting therapeutic options for treating KPC-related infections in patients [67].