What causes horse pleuropneumonia?

In most instances, it develops as a result of bacterial infection or penetrating chest wounds. Pleuropneumonia is more likely to occur in horses already weakened by previous viral respiratory infection, long-distance transportation with head restraint, general anesthesia, or strenuous exercise.

What is membranous croup?

Membranous laryngotracheobronchitis (membranous croup), not previously described as a distinct entity, is characterized by diffuse inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi with adherent or semiadherent mucopurulent membranes in the subglottic trachea (conus elasticus) and in the upper trachea distal to the …

What causes fluid on the lungs in horses?

Hemothorax, the accumulation of blood in the pleural (chest) cavity, is usually caused by trauma to the chest, blood clotting disorders, or tumors in the chest.

What is a heave line in horses?

In its advanced stages, the horse will develop “heave lines” – a pronounced line along the lower half of the animal’s barrel, below its rib cage. Because the horse breathes only through its nostrils, and not its mouth, managing respiratory conditions is vital, particularly for sport horses.

What is horse pleuropneumonia?

Pleuropneumonia is defined as infection of the lungs and pleural space. In most instances, pleural infection develops secondary to bacterial pneumonia or penetrating thoracic wounds. Spontaneous pleuritis (without accompanying pneumonia) is uncommon in horses.

What is pleuro pneumonia?

pleuropneumonia, lung disease of cattle and sheep, characterized by inflammation of the lungs and caused by the bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides. Fever, thirst, loss of appetite, and difficult breathing are signs of the disease. The United States and Europe eradicated the disease near the end of the 19th century.

Is membranous croup diphtheria?

YES. Read in the Section on Diseases of Children at the Thirty-ninth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, Cincinnati, May, 1888. I. N.

What is bacterial tracheitis?

Bacterial tracheitis is a diffuse inflammatory process of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi with adherent or semiadherent mucopurulent membranes within the trachea. The major site of disease is at the cricoid cartilage level, the narrowest part of the trachea.

How does a horse get pneumonia?

Pneumonia in horses is a lung infection that can be from bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, or aspiration (inhalation). Pneumonia can be a very serious disease in horses. In fact, it can even be fatal in some cases. The most common cause of pneumonia is streptococcus zooepidemicus, which is a form of bacteria.

How do you treat a respiratory infection in horses?

Ceftiofur sodium was evaluated as a therapy for respiratory infections in horses. This cephalosporin antimicrobial was administered intramuscularly every 24 h and at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg (1.0 mg/lb) of body weight.

What are heaves and lifts?

• A lift (also heave) is an abnormal sustained, systolic. outward movement of the precordium associated. with heart failure. A right ventricular lift is felt best. at the left sternal border and left ventricular lift felt.

What is palpable P2?

A palpable P2 suggests pulmonary hypertension.