What are the different types of schistosomiasis?

There are 2 major forms of schistosomiasis – intestinal and urogenital – caused by 5 main species of blood fluke.

What are the five species of schistosomiasis?

The schistosomes or blood flukes are parasitic flatworms of the class Trematoda. The majority of human infections are attributable to 5 species: Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, S. haematobium, S.

How many species of schistosomes are there?

The genus Schistosoma as currently defined is paraphyletic, so revisions are likely. Over twenty species are recognised within this genus. The genus has been divided into four groups: indicum, japonicum, haematobium and mansoni.

What is schistosome cercariae?

Parasites – Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis is considered one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The parasites that cause schistosomiasis live in certain types of freshwater snails. The infectious form of the parasite, known as cercariae, emerge from the snail into the water.

What is the difference between Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni?

mansoni lives principally in the portal veins draining the large intestine, S. japonicum in the mesenteric veins of the small intestines, and S. haematobium infects veins of the urinary bladder plexus. Fluke eggs penetrate into the lumen of the intestines or bladder to be voided with host faeces or urine.

What is another name for praziquantel?

BILTRICIDE® (praziquantel) is a trematodicide provided in tablet form for the oral treatment of schistosome infections and infections due to liver fluke.

What is Angiostrongyliasis?

Parasites – Angiostrongyliasis (also known as Angiostrongylus Infection) Related Pages. Angiostrongylus is a parasitic nematode that can cause severe gastrointestinal or central nervous system disease in humans, depending on the species.

What is the difference between albendazole and praziquantel?

All lesions in control patients remained unchanged. Albendazole, when compared with praziquantel, showed a 76% vs 73% disappearance of lesions, respectively. It was concluded that both drugs have similar equivalent efficacy and greatly improve the therapeutics of cysticercosis.

What class of drug is praziquantel?

Praziquantel belongs to the family of medicines called anthelmintics. Anthelmintics are used in the treatment of worm infections. Praziquantel works by causing severe spasms and paralysis of the worms’ muscles. Some kinds of worms are then passed in the stool.

Which Schistosoma is found in urine?

Urinary schistosomiasis is a human disease condition, which is caused by infection of the trematode Schistosoma heamatobium. The parasite is found in the venous plexus draining the urinary bladder of humans [1].

What are the different types of Schistosoma infections?

The three main species infecting humans are Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni. Three other species, more localized geographically, are S. mekongi, S. intercalatum, and S. guineensis (previously considered synonymous with S. intercalatum).

Which schistosomes cause cercarial dermatitis?

Several genera/species are known to cause cercarial dermatitis; the most commonly implicated genus globally is the waterfowl schistosome Trichobilharzia spp. ( T. ocellata, T. brevis, T. stagnicolae, T. physellae, T. regenti, and others). Other avian schistosomes that cause cercarial dermatitis include Ornithobilharzia spp., Austrobilharzia spp.

Are cercariae zoonotic schistosomes?

These cercariae seem to have a chemotrophic reaction to secretions from the skin and are not as host-specific as other types of human-infecting schistosomes. Skin penetration by these zoonotic cercariae causes dermatitis, but the cercariae do not mature into adults in the human body.

What are the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp?

The intermediate hosts of Schistosoma spp. are various species of freshwater snails. Eggs are shed from the human host in feces or urine. Under optimal conditions in the environment, the eggs hatch and release miracidia, which swim and penetrate specific snail intermediate hosts.