What are the characteristics of Orrorin tugenensis?

Living around 6 million years ago, Orrorin tugenensis is the one of the oldest early humans on our family tree. Individuals of this species were approximately the size of a chimpanzee and had small teeth with thick enamel, similar to modern humans.

What features do the Australopithecus species share?

As characterized by the fossil evidence, members of Australopithecus bore a combination of humanlike and apelike traits. They were similar to modern humans in that they were bipedal (that is, they walked on two legs), but, like apes, they had small brains.

Why is Orrorin tugenensis important?

Orrorin tugenensis is important to hominin evolution because it (along with Sahelanthropus tchadensis, from central Africa) may represent some of the earliest evidence for bipedalism in the human fossil record. O. tugenensis is represented by 20 fossil specimens, coming from a minimum of five individuals.

What was special about the Homohabilis species?

As justification for designating their new creature Homo rather than Australopithecus, they described the increased cranial capacity and comparatively smaller molar and premolar teeth of the fossils, a humanlike foot, and hand bones that suggested an ability to manipulate objects with precision—hence the species name …

Which anatomical characteristic of Orrorin tugenensis was indicative of bipedal locomotion?

There has been particular emphasis on the asymmetric cortical bone distribution in the femoral neck, which is considered one of the key traits indicative of bipedality in Orrorin (Figure 3, Pickford et al.

What is the cranial capacity brain size of Australopithecus afarensis?

about 375 to 550 cc
Afarensis had an apelike face with a low forehead, a bony ridge over the eyes, a flat nose, and no chin. They had protruding jaws with large back teeth. Cranial capacity varied from about 375 to 550 cc. The skull is similar to that of a chimpanzee, except for the more humanlike teeth.

What is the cranial capacity of Australopithecus afarensis?

What is the brain size of Australopithecus?

approximately 470 cc
Brain size in Australopithecus (sensu lato) averages approximately 470 cc (based on data in [75]), which is about one-third larger than the average chimpanzee brain (363 cc; data from [76] Pan troglodytes troglodytes individuals in [77]).

What is the cultural developments of Orrorin tugenensis?

There is no evidence for any specific cultural attributes. However, it may have used simple tools similar to those used by modern chimpanzees including: twigs, sticks and other plant materials that were easily shaped or modified. These may have been used for a variety of simple tasks including obtaining food.

Which species has a cranial capacity of 900 cc and longer legs than arms?

Eugene Dubois found Pithecanthropus erectus in 1891. It had roughly 900 cc brain size.

What is the cranial capacity of Sahelanthropus tchadensis?

The brain size of this erstwhile hominid was only about 350 cc, similar to that of a modern chimpanzee (human mean cranial capacity is 1350 cc). Moreover, the skull has the same general appearance as that of a chimpanzee.